OECD – REVISED GUIDANCE ON THE APPLICATION OF THE TRANSACTIONAL PROFIT SPLIT METHOD INCLUSIVE FRAMEWORK ON BEPS: ACTIONS 10. The guidance set out in this report responds to the mandate under Action 10 of the BEPS Action Plan, which required the development of: “… rules to prevent BEPS by engaging in transactions which would not, or would only very rarely, occur between third parties. This will involve adopting transfer pricing rules or special measures to: … (ii) clarify the application of transfer pricing methods, in particular profit splits, in the context of global value chains;…” The OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines have included guidance on the transactional profit split method since their first iteration in 1995. Since the revision to the Guidelines in 2010, the transactional profit split method has been applicable where it is found to be the most appropriate method to the case at hand. This basic premise is unchanged. However, this revised guidance, while not being prescriptive, clarifies and significantly expands the guidance on when a profit split method may be the most appropriate method. It describes presence of one or more of the following indicators as being relevant: Each party makes unique and valuable contributions; The business operations are highly integrated such that the contributions of the parties cannot be reliably evaluated in isolation from each other; The parties share the assumption of economically significant risks, or separately assume closely related risks. The guidance makes clear that while a lack of comparables is, by itself, insufficient to warrant the use of the profit split method, if, conversely, reliable comparables are available it is unlikely that the method will be the most appropriate. The revised text also expands the guidance on how the profit split method should be applied, including determining the relevant profits to be split, and appropriate profit splitting factors. Sixteen examples are included in the revised guidance to illustrate the principles discussed in the text, and demonstrate how the method might be applied in practice. These will be included in Annex II to Chapter II of the Guidelines.


OECD – GUIDANCE FOR TAX ADMINISTRATIONS ON THE APPLICATION OF THE APPROACH TO HARD-TO-VALUE INTANGIBLES. INCLUSIVE FRAMEWORK ON BEPS: ACTION 8. Action 8 of the Action Plan on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting mandated the development of transfer pricing rules or special measures for transfers of hard-to-value intangibles (HTVI) aimed at preventing base erosion and profit shifting by moving intangibles among group members. The outcome of that work is the approach to hard-to-value intangibles, which is found in the 2015 Final Report for Actions 8-10, “Aligning Transfer Pricing Outcomes with Value Creation” (BEPS TP Report) and it was formally incorporated into the Transfer Pricing Guidelines, as Section D.4 of Chapter VI. The HTVI approach protects tax administrations from the negative effects of information asymmetry by ensuring that tax administrations can consider ex post outcomes as presumptive evidence about the appropriateness of the ex-ante pricing arrangements. At the same time, the taxpayer has the possibility to rebut such presumptive evidence by demonstrating the reliability of the information supporting the pricing methodology adopted at the time the controlled transaction took place. The BEPS TP Report also mandated the development of guidance for tax administrations on the application of the HTVI approach. Under this mandate, the Committee on Fiscal Affairs issued a public discussion draft in May 2017, inviting interested parties to submit comments on the proposed guidance for tax administration on the application of the HTVI approach. The guidance contained in this report aims at reaching a common understanding and practice among tax administrations on how to apply adjustments resulting from the application of the HTVI approach. This guidance should improve consistency and reduce the risk of economic double taxation. In particular, the new guidance: · Presents the principles that should underlie the application of the HTVI approach by tax administrations; · Provides a number of examples clarifying the application of the HTVI approach in different scenarios; and · Addresses the interaction between the HTVI approach and the access to the mutual agreement procedure under the applicable tax treaty. The guidance for tax administration on the application of the HTVI approach contained in this document has been incorporated into the Transfer Pricing Guidelines as an annex to Chapter VI.

OECD Taxation Working Papers, N. 36 – Domestic Revenue Mobilisation: A new database on tax levels and structures in 80 countries

OECD Taxation Working Papers, N. 36- Domestic resource mobilisation is critical to fund government services and to support development. Taxes are a critical domestic revenue source that can also impact other social or economic outcomes. Understanding differences in the level and structure of tax revenues is therefore foundational to discussions of domestic resource mobilisation and of tax reform. This paper presents evidence on the level and structure of tax revenues in 80 countries, drawing on the new Global Revenue Statistics Database. It compares tax-to-GDP ratios and tax structures across countries, regions and over time. Links between tax-to-GDP ratios, GDP per capita and tax structures are assessed in a correlation analysis. The new database provides invaluable insights for researchers and fiscal policy analysts and offers a high level of comparability and reliability.


The work of the Centre for Tax Policy and Administration (CTPA) has changed dramatically in recent years, including in relation to the role of development and developing countries in our work. I am proud that an increasing number of developing countries are now integrated into our work, as equal members of the Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes (the Global Forum) and the OECD/G20 Inclusive Framework on BEPS (the Inclusive Framework), with a voice on the creation and implementation of new international tax standards. This has been an evolving process. As globalisation increased, the challenges of cross-border taxation have extended beyond the OECD membership, and the CTPA accelerated our dialogue with developing countries accordingly. This started with our Global Relations Programme (GRP) in the early 90’s which has provided training and capacity building for over 25 000 tax officials from the developing world. Since then, we have created a Task Force on Tax and Development, we have expanded our Global Revenue Statistics database to cover more than 90 countries by the end of 2018, we have established audit programmes through our Tax Inspectors Without Borders (TIWB) initiative and we have set up tax crime investigation academies throughout the world. Of greatest significance however has been the establishment of the Global Forum and the Inclusive Framework, which have brought dozens of developing countries into the heart of the work of the CTPA. This has fundamentally changed the nature of how we operate, ensuring development is an integral concern across all of our work. It has also raised expectations as the CTPA is now seen as a key actor in the Domestic Resource Mobilisation (DRM) agenda. This process has been inspired by the wider development landscape, most recently with the Addis Ababa Action Agenda (AAAA) and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). These agreements provide both a framework and a vision for how we can continue to develop international co-operaton in taxation to benefit development. The CTPA has been, and will continue to be, inspired by that vision that sees development as a universal agenda, and we will continue to mainstream development across all of our work. This booklet sets out how we have been doing this, and how we intend to do more in the future. (2018-19).


OECD TRANSFER PRICING STANDARD AND BRAZILIAN APPROACH: THE WAY FORWARD. This one-day-long event will bring together senior officials from the Brazilian government, the OECD, representatives of MNEs operating in Brazil, and major trading and investment partners of Brazil. This event has been organised to highlight an important milestone reached in the joint transfer pricing project between OECD and Receita Federal do Brasil (RFB), which was supported by the United Kingdom Foreign and Commonwealth Office and focussed on analysing the existing Brazilian transfer pricing rules and comparing them to the international standard represented by the OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines. The differences identified were then further assessed from the perspective of meeting the primary objectives of transfer pricing rules as well as from the perspective of other tax policy objectives. Based on the results of this assessment, the project also explored the possibilities for alignment to address the divergences identified. In the relevant sessions, the results of the project between OECD and RFB will be presented and discussed. The event will also provide the opportunity to discuss the possible options for alignment and it will conclude with a roundtable, which should allow for an exchange of views among the panellists. Thursday, 11 July 2019, Brasília, Brazil.


IGF-OECD PROGRAM TO ADDRESS BEPS IN MINING TAX INCENTIVES IN MINING: MINIMISING RISKS TO REVENUE. SUPPLEMENTARY GUIDANCE: How to Use Financial Modelling to Estimate the Cost of Tax Incentives. Financial models are representations of the real world intended to give useful insight. They can be used to help governments make better-informed decisions, such as whether to provide a tax incentive to a mining project given the expected impact on government revenues and investor returns. Financial modelling is not new, although a lack of modelling expertise in developing countries compromises government efforts to design effective fiscal regimes and negotiate contracts. Outside of governments there are various organisations involved in financial modelling. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) uses the Fiscal Analysis of Resource Industries (FARI) framework to evaluate extractive industry fiscal regimes. In the future they intend to expand FARI modelling to assist revenue administrations to model the tax gap between actual and expected revenues. Practitioners in the non-profit sector include the Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment (CCSI), International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD), Natural Resource Governance Institute (NRGI) and the Overseas Development Institute (ODI). OpenOil, a company based in Berlin, has developed an open-source approach to financial modelling of extractive industry projects and has published models of projects in Latin America, Africa and Asia. About this supplementary guidance – This guidance is focused specifically on how governments can use financial models to estimate the unintended revenue losses that result from mining investors changing their behaviour in response to tax incentives. It is intended to supplement Tax Incentives in Mining: Minimising risks to revenue, guidance material prepared under a programme of cooperation between the OECD and the Inter-Governmental Forum on Mining (IGF). It is not intended to replicate general guidance and technical assistance offered by international organisations, non-profits and private companies. Who is this guidance for? The guidance is for users who have some knowledge of financial modelling, such as government officials in ministries of mining or finance that are tasked with building financial models to advise decision-makers on fiscal regime design or contract negotiation. Knowledge of the basics of financial modelling is therefore assumed and this guidance does not teach users how to build a basic financial model of a mining project. The modelling tool adds new insights on how to integrate tax incentives into financial models and how to test the revenue impact of potential behavioural responses. See Annex 1 for suggested guidance material on basic financial modelling.


OECD SECRETARY-GENERAL TAX REPORT TO G20 LEADERS. Osaka, Japan June 2019. Since I last reported to you in December 2018, substantial progress took place on all the deliverables in the G20 International Taxation agenda; namely, tax transparency, Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) implementation, addressing the tax challenges arising from the digitalisation of the economy, tax certainty and tax and development. Since its inception in 2008, the G20 has developed a very ambitious tax agenda to improve tax cooperation and transparency and ensure that companies pay their taxes where they carry on their activities. 10 years ago, bank secrecy and opaque structures were used and abused by too many taxpayers across the world to hide their assets and income from tax administrations. Thanks to the efforts of the G20, bank secrecy for tax purposes no longer exists and all financial centres are now engaged in the automatic exchange of financial information (through the OECD’s Common Reporting Standard – CRS). In 2008, only 40 exchange of information agreements between secretive jurisdictions and other countries had been put in place. Today, more than 4500 exchange of information agreements are in force with 90 jurisdictions implementing the CRS in 2018). As a result 47 million offshore accounts – with a total value of around 4.9 Trillion euros – have been exchanged for the first time. This level of transparency in tax matters is unprecedented and ensures that those assets will never escape detection. A small number of jurisdictions have yet to fulfil their commitments to exchange automatically by 2018 at the latest and they are urged to do so without further delay. Beyond these impressive numbers, our action has had a very concrete impact. First, you and other countries in the world have recovered taxes which had been defrauded for too long. For a few years now, I have reported to you the amounts collected from taxpayers coming forward and having disclosed formerly concealed assets and income through voluntary compliance mechanisms and other offshore investigations. The latest update brings the amount to over EUR 95 billion in additional revenue (tax, interest, penalties) from such initiatives, which is an addition EUR 2 billion since November 2018.


OECD – INTERNATIONAL EXCHANGE FRAMEWORK FOR MANDATORY DISCLOSURE RULES ON CRS AVOIDANCE ARRANGEMENTS AND OPAQUE OFFSHORE STRUCTURES. 1. Following the approval of the Model Mandatory Disclosure Rules (MDRs) by the OECD’s Committee on Fiscal Affairs and their release on 8 March 2018, Working Party No. 10 has developed the legal and technical information exchange infrastructure that is needed for the exchange of the information collected by tax administrations under the MDRs. 2. This note therefore sets out the international framework that would govern these exchanges, both from a legal and an operational perspective. 3. Part I of this note contains a draft multilateral Competent Authority Agreement for the exchange of MDR reports that has been modelled on the CRS MCAA. 4. In drafting the MCAA, an automatic exchange approach has been adopted, following the approach used for the CRS and CbC exchanges. This has been done in order to ensure that exchanges will be operationalised on the clear and unambiguous legal basis of Article 6 of the Convention and to provide clarity about the scope and periodicity of the exchanged information. The approach in the draft MCAA with respect to the information flows is that exchanges in principle are on a reciprocal basis between two jurisdictions that have implemented MDRs. This has the advantage that only jurisdictions that are familiar with the MDR and thus have a better understanding of the information will be receiving the information. It also provides an incentive for jurisdictions to adopt MDR to benefit from the automatic exchange network.

OECD/Platform for collaboration on tax – PCT Progress Report 2018 – 2019

OECD/Platform for collaboration on tax – PCT Progress Report 2018 – 2019. The adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Addis Ababa Action Agenda in 2015 has prompted multilateral organizations to expand their work on domestic revenue mobilization (DRM) in countries, particularly developing countries, 1 including through rapidly growing portfolios of tax-related activities. In this context, the Platform for Collaboration on Tax (PCT) was established in 2016 to bring together the experiences and expertise of the four largest multilateral organizations active in tax matters (International Monetary Fund [IMF], Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD], United Nations [UN], and World Bank Group [WBG]) to enhance cooperation on domestic revenue issues. Over the last three years, the Platform has helped exploit complementarities and synergies among its Partners in their work on tax, while fully respecting the governance mandates and policy positions of each organization. This report provides an update of the work of the PCT during 2018-19. The PCT previously reported on its progress in 2017.2 Going forward, the PCT plans to provide updates on an annual basis to its governing bodies and interested stakeholders.3 Section II of this report provides an update of the PCT work plan. In February 2018, the PCT held its first global conference on taxation and the SDGs. In their closing statement, Partners committed to 14 actions for enhancing coordination, cooperation and collaboration in their work on tax in support of the SDGs (Box 1). To meet the commitments set out in the 14 Action Items, the PCT has begun with the implementation of a comprehensive work plan. The work plan consists of three main work streams: (1) coordination of DRM capacity development activities; (2) analytical activities; and (3) outreach activities. Then, Section III of the report discusses the early experience with Medium-Term Revenue Strategies (MTRS) and draws preliminary lessons. A brief overview of DRM-related activities of PCT Partners is provided in Section IV. As support for capacity development is scaled up, efficiency and effectiveness only gain more importance. Risks of redundancy, as well as support that outpaces countries’ absorption capacity, need to be managed. By collaborating, synergies in support for capacity development can be exploited and comparative advantages leveraged. Partners have identified complementarities in their mandates, tools and ways of working, which are presented in the Note on Complementarities between the Platform Partners, included as Annex 1. Next steps for strengthening collaboration between Partners are included in Section V of this progress report.


OECD – SIGNATORIES AND PARTIES TO THE MULTILATERAL CONVENTION TO IMPLEMENT TAX TREATY RELATED MEASURES TO PREVENT BASE EROSION AND PROFIT SHIFTING. Status as of 18 June 2019. This document contains a list of signatories and parties to the Multilateral Convention to Implement Tax Treaty Related Measures to Prevent Base Erosion and Profit Shifting. Under the provisions of the Convention, each jurisdiction is required to provide a list of reservations and notifications (the “MLI Position”) at the time of signature. The MLI Positions provided for each jurisdiction upon the deposit of the instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval and/or signature are available via the links below.