OECD – BACKGROUND BRIEF. Inclusive Framework on BEPS. The international tax landscape has changed dramatically in recent years as a result of economic challenges, and new standards have been developed to enable countries protect their revenue bases. With a conservatively estimated annual revenue loss of USD 100 to 240 billion due to base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS), the stakes are high for governments around the world. With the political support of the G20 Leaders, OECD and G20 countries have taken joint action to address the weaknesses within the international tax system that create opportunities for BEPS. Working with other countries, they have developed a comprehensive package of measures to tackle BEPS: the BEPS package. Countries and jurisdictions are now working together on implementing the BEPS package consistently on a global basis, and to develop further standards to address remaining BEPS issues. To these ends, the decision making body for the OECD’s tax work – the OECD Committee on Fiscal Affairs (CFA) – had been opened up to interested countries and jurisdictions in order to put in place an Inclusive Framework on BEPS. The Inclusive Framework on BEPS held its first meeting on 30 June – 1 July 2016 in Kyoto, Japan, and the second on 26 – 27 January 2017 in Paris, France. Members of the framework work on an equal footing to tackle tax avoidance, to improve the coherence of international tax rules, and to ensure a more transparent tax environment. In particular, the framework: – develops standards in respect of remaining BEPS issues; – will review the implementation of agreed minimum standards through an effective monitoring system; – monitors BEPS issues, including tax challenges raised by the digital economy; and – facilitates the implementation processes of the Members by providing further guidance and by supporting development of toolkits to support low-capacity developing countries. Joining the Inclusive Framework offers the opportunity to interested countries and jurisdictions to participate in the BEPS related work on an equal footing with other OECD and G20 countries. Being part of the Inclusive Framework on BEPS will facilitate the implementation, as well as the peer review processes of the Members, by providing them further guidance and support, including guidance covered by the Platform for Collaboration on Tax established among the IMF, the OECD, the UN and the World Bank Group.
OECD – 2017 UPDATE TO THE OECD MODEL TAX CONVENTION. This note includes the contents of the 2017 update to the OECD Model Tax Convention (the 2017 Update). The 2017 Update was approved by the Committee on Fiscal Affairs on 28 September 2017 and by the OECD Council on 21 November 2017. The 2017 Update primarily comprises changes to the OECD Model Tax Convention (the OECD Model) that were approved as part of the BEPS Package or were foreseen as part of the follow-up work on the treaty-related BEPS measures. These changes include the following: • Changes to the Title and Preamble of the OECD Model, as well as to its Introduction, and related Commentary changes contained in the Report on Action 6 (Preventing the Granting of Treaty Benefits in Inappropriate Circumstances). • The addition of new paragraph 2 to Article 1 (the transparent entity provision) and of related Commentary changes. These changes appear in Chapter 14 of the Report on Action 2 (Neutralising the Effects of Hybrid Mismatch Arrangements). • The addition of new paragraph 3 to Article 1 (the “saving clause”) and of related Commentary changes. These changes appear in the Report on Action 6. • Changes to the section of the Commentary on Article 1 on “Improper use of the Convention”, which include optional provisions to deny treaty benefits with respect to income benefiting from “special tax regimes” and in cases of certain subsequent changes to the domestic law of a treaty partner after the conclusion of a tax treaty. Draft proposals for these optional provisions were included in the Report on Action 6, which noted that the proposals would be reviewed in the light of similar proposals which had been released by the United States for public comment in September 2015. The optional provisions on “special tax regimes” and on subsequent changes to domestic law, as they appear in the 2017 Update, were finalised accordingly.
All OECD and G20 countries have committed to implementing country by country (CbC) reporting, as set out in the Action 13 Report “Transfer Pricing Documentation and Country-by-Country Reporting”. Recognising the significant benefits that CbC reporting can offer a tax administration in undertaking high level risk assessment of transfer pricing and other BEPS related tax risks, a number of other jurisdictions have also committed to implementing CbC reporting (which with OECD members form the “Inclusive Framework”), including developing countries. Jurisdictions have agreed that implementing CbC reporting is a key priority in addressing BEPS risks, and the Action 13 Report recommended that reporting take place with respect to fiscal periods commencing from 1 January 2016. Swift progress is being made in order to meet this timeline, including the introduction of domestic legal frameworks and the entry into competent authority agreements for the international exchange of CbC reports. MNE Groups are likewise making preparations for CbC reporting, and dialogue between governments and business is a critical aspect of ensuring that CbC reporting is implemented consistently across the globe. Consistent implementation will not only ensure a level playing field, but also provide certainty for taxpayers and improve the ability of tax administrations to use CbC reports in their risk assessment work. The OECD will continue to support the consistent and swift implementation of CbC reporting. Where questions of interpretation have arisen and would be best addressed through common public guidance, the OECD will endeavour to make this available. The guidance in this document is intended to assist in this regard. Some questions and answers refer to articles of the Model Legislation related to Countryby-Country Reporting contained in the Action 13 Report (“Model Legislation”). Such references do not mean that countries’ domestic legislation should follow word-for-word the provisions in the Model Legislation. As indicated in paragraph 61 of the Action 13 Report “jurisdictions will be able to adapt this model legislation to their own legal systems, where changes to current legislation are required”. Countries’ domestic legal framework should however, be substantively consistent with the Model Legislation. Updated November 2017.
OECD Taxation Working Papers N. 32: Legal tax liability, legal remittance responsibility and tax incidence
Legal tax liability, legal remittance responsibility and tax incidence. THREE DIMENSIONS OF BUSINESS TAXATION.